Hydrogen is a potential fuel in pursuit of a green transportation future. Challenges facing the development of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFVs) include the competition with plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the infancy stage of infrastructure. To address these challenges, this paper presents and evaluates optimal planning of hydrogen refueling stations (HRSs) considering the interactions between the transportation and the power networks. The first part of the paper develops models of 1) HFV traffic flows on a highway network with driving range constraints, 2) operations of on-site hydrogen production and storage, 3) service rate requirements, and 4) the coupled high-voltage power distribution network with AC power flows. The second part of the paper formulates a mixed-integer second order cone program (MISOCP) to determine 1) the sites and the sizes of HRSs, 2) hourly HRS operations and 3) grid reinforcement. Case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The major finding is that the HFV infrastructure system is likely to be more costly than its PEV counterpart, but has significant cost-saving potential if increasing the driving range, applying time-based electricity rates and integrating renewable distributed electricity generation.
Wei Qi is an assistant professor in Operations Management at the Desautels Faculty of Management at McGill University. He is also a faculty advisor of the China’s Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. His work has contributed to smart city operations concerning urban energy, mobility and retail logistics. His work has been supported by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) and US-China Climate Change Working Group, etc. His research has been published in Operations Research, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, and Production and Operations Management. His cross-disciplinary research has also appeared in the first-tier systems engineering journals such as IEEE Transactions on Power Systems and IEEE Transactions on Smart Gird. Wei earned a Ph.D. from UC Berkeley, an M.S. from UCLA and a B.E. from Zhejiang University, China.